Searcher Foundation Security Products Catalog

For Public Distribution


Media Relations | INTERNATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING | News | Child Protection Devices | CODE AMBER / NCMEC ALERT | Links | Blue Light Sanctuaries | Personnel | Directions | Contact Us/Human Resources/Jobs | Operations | Missing Persons | COMSEC

Date: Fri, 9 May 2003 12:00:18 +0100 (BST)
From: Scott Lomax <>
Subject: Article on 'Adam' - Case File 380UMUK

The following is from a British magazine called True Detective (a sister magazine of Master Detective). It refers to Adam case

Torso Boys Last Journey

A boy whose mutilated torso was found floating in the River Thames was brought to Britain as a slave and sacrificed in an African religious ritual intended to bring good luck to his killers.

Genetic tests carried out on the boy found last September with his head and limbs removed and wearing orange shorts points to a West African origin.

Further analysis of the stomach and bone chemistry show the child, aged four to seven years, could not have been brought up in London. Detectives are now working on the theory that he was bought as a slave in
West Africa and smuggled to Britain to be killed.

Experts on African religion consulted by Scotland Yard believe that he may have been sacrificed to one of 400 ancestor gods of the Yoruba people, Nigerias second largest ethnic group. Oshun, a Yoruba river goddess, is associated with orange, the colour of the shorts which were put on the boys body 24 hours after he was killed. The body was then stored for a further day before being dumped in the river.

An examination of the cuts where the head and limbs were sliced from the corpse shows that they were made by an expert using extremely sharp, specially preparedknives, in a horrific operation reminiscent of animal sacrifice. The flesh around the limbs and neck was first cut to the bones, which were slashed with a single blow from an implement like a butchers cleaver. The boy would have been stretched out
horizontally or upside down during the sacrifice and kept there as the blood drained from the body.

Investigators discount the theory that the boy was the victim of a so-called muti killing, where body parts are taken to be used as medicine.

They now believe rich West Africans imported the boy after hiring a specialist witch doctor to procure him perhaps paying his family to allow him to be put to work abroad. The child was well treated before he was killed. Traces of cough medicine found in his stomach indicate that someone wanted him in good health for
his execution.


LOAD-DATE: May 10, 2003

Copyright 2003 Nation Multimedia Group 
The Nation (Thailand)

May 10, 2003, Saturday

LENGTH: 462 words

HEADLINE: Website helps track down missing persons

BYLINE: The Nation.

Website helps track down missing persons

Thailand's first online centre sharing information on missing persons
was formally launched yesterday.

Observers lauded the initia- tive, but added that the Kingdom remained
far behind Western countries in offering assur- ances that the missing
would be found.

They also said that many of the cases involve a lack of family care.

"The Thai police have no proper procedure to deal with missing persons;
to verify whether it's truly a case of missing persons or not. In the
United Kingdom, one case can involve as many as 10,000 interrogations.
In the United States, some television channels offer free
announcements," said Sappasith Kumprapan, director of the Foundation
for Child Protection.

While there is no official number of missing persons in Thailand, it
estimated that the numbers reached into the tens of thousands, said
Sombat Boon-ngarm-anong, founder of

Sappasith added that according to a Thailand Development Research
Institute (TDRI) survey, some 60 to 70 per cent of children who had
missing had run away from home. Sappasith urged society to be more
caring and said that the website could not succeed without the
collaboration of the public.

Sombat said that research in Chiang Rai among 45 villages in one tambon
revealed that 23 people were missing, one of them for 22 years. Four
were relocated within four months of searching, he said.

"My son may no longer be alive, but if I could find him I would be very
happy," said Meesie Ayi, an ethnic Akha woman whose son went missing
eight years ago, when he was six year's old.

Meesie said that trying to find her son had made her poor.

Eighteen-year-old Achu Chermue was reunited with her mother after six
years thanks to the research team that runs the website.

Achu said that she was not sure if its was true her mother had sold her
to a Bangkok brothel for Bt30,00, as the brothel's owner claimed, so
meeting her mother again involved mixed feelings.

The mother denied the accusation. She had contacted the researchers two
years ago.

"I don't yet know what to do in the future," said Achu.

Sombat said that there were thousands more who must silently face such
realities and who have no access to the media to publicise their

"I fear that a good number of those missing children and women are
being trafficked. Our common belief is that the Thai family is warm and
caring, but there are also people who simply don't want to return

The Office for the Prevention of Human Trafficking under the Ministry
Human Resources said that since 2000, there had been 1,300 missing
person cases believed to involve trafficking rings.

Horizontal Divider 1

Local woman seeks information about her missing daughter, granddaughter

Descriptions: Name: Carla Zircher Age: 28 Description: 58" inches tall; approximately 300 lbs.; multiple earings (four in one ear; three in another); and a tattoo of a heart with a rainbow over it on her right shoulder. Name: Kelsey Zircher Age: 4 To give information: Call 773-4575 or 368-3739.

May 6, 2003 - PIQUA - A Piqua woman is desperate to find her daughter and granddaughter and hopes the Piqua community can help.

Sue Wray is seeking any information about the whereabouts of her daughter, Carla Zircher, 28, and her granddaughter, Kelsey, 4.

Wray said she believes her daughter had become involved with an online group that promotes dominant and submissive sexual relationships. She said she thinks Zircher left with her daughter to meet those people Wednesday.

"Its almost a cult activity," Wray said.

The family called 911 soon after finding that Zircher had left, but was told by the Miami County Sheriffs Department that it could not pursue an investigation because nothing illegal had taken place.

"Shes with a parent," Miami County Sheriffs Department Chief Deputy Joe Mahan explained. "You have to have something proven to have been endangering to the childs well-being," he said.

He said the facts in this case - that Zircher left on her own free will; that she is the mother of the child; and, that she and her husband are together and not engaged in a custody dispute - did not constitute illegal activity.

"The systems frustrating," Mahan said.

Wray and her family - including Zirchers husband - have continued to pursue leads in an attempt to find her daughter and said she believes she may no longer be in Ohio.

"Ive done everything I can do," Wray said. "Im grasping at straws."

In searching for her daughter, Wray said she also has learned a lot about the seedier side of the Internet.

"Im getting the education of my life," Wray said.

Todd Dulaney is a reporter for the Brown News Service, based in Troy.

Sheila Hottinger (
Assistant AD, Ohio
The Doe Network

Horizontal Divider 1

Missing Young Women:
Free Trade and violence against women in Mexico

Since 1993 more than 320 young women have been abducted, raped and murdered
in the Mexican border city of Juarez. Despite the number of victims and the
audacity of the killers, authorities have failed to stop the killings or
jail the murderers. A culture of violence against women reigns in Juarez.

Señorita Extraviada is a 70-minute film that documents the women of Juarez
and their struggle for justice. The film is narrated in English with Spanish
interviews that are subtitled in English.

 Originally, police blamed the murders on the victims themselves, accusing
them of prostitution or drug abuse. As victim's families organized to defend
their daughters and demand justice, the cops desperately arrested and
tortured suspects until they confessed, but the murders continued.  Most
alarmingly, the account of one female survivor was never investigated. The
film is also a disturbing portrait of Ciudad Juarez, NAFTA's "City of the
Future" and home to 500 enormous assembly plants, called "maquiladoras." In
these plants, Mexican workers toil away 12-hour shifts in well-kept,
US-owned factories for $4-8 a day. After shift,  workers return to
shantytowns of sewage, danger and squalor. Families with three full time
wage earners can't afford decent housing. Señorita Extraviada
gives voice to the victim's families and local activists struggling against
corrupt police.  The film raises important questions about an economic
system that devalues women's work and women's lives.

"With over 270 girls raped and murdered and another 450 reported missing, we
felt we had to investigate these disappearances and attacks," explains
director Lourdes Portillo, "attacks specifically directed toward young,
brown, unprotected, poor women. We had all these different pieces of the
puzzle, all these various elements, that just didn't fit together, and the
most surprising thing was the silence."

This event is co-sponsored by the Mexico Solidarity Network and ....

Jessica Marques, the west coast coordinator for the Mexico Solidarity
Network, will introduce the film and lead a discussion and question/answer
period afterward.


Sheila Hottinger (
Assistant AD, Ohio
The Doe Network

Horizontal Divider 1

A short history of Human Sacrifice in the US.

Contributed by:
Sheila Hottinger (
Assistant AD, Ohio
The Doe Network

Horizontal Divider 1

Date: Fri, 9 May 2003 12:00:18 +0100 (BST)
   From: Scott Lomax <>
Subject: Article on 'Adam' - Case File 380UMUK

The following is from a British magazine called True
Detective (a sister magazine of Master Detective). It
refers to Adam case

Torso Boys Last Journey

A boy whose mutilated torso was found floating in the
River Thames was brought to Britain as a slave and
sacrificed in an African religious ritual intended
to bring good luck to his killers.

Genetic tests carried out on the boy found last
September with his head and limbs removed and wearing
orange shorts points to a West African origin.

Further analysis of the stomach and bone chemistry
show the child, aged four to seven years, could not
have been brought up in London. Detectives are now
working on the theory that he was bought as a slave in
West Africa and smuggled to Britain to be killed.

Experts on African religion consulted by Scotland Yard
believe that he may have been sacrificed to one of 400
ancestor gods of the Yoruba people, Nigerias second
largest ethnic group. Oshun, a Yoruba river goddess,
is associated with orange, the colour of the shorts
which were put on the boys body 24 hours after he was
killed. The body was then stored for a further day
before being dumped in the river.

An examination of the cuts where the head and limbs
were sliced from the corpse shows that they were made
by an expert using extremely sharp, specially prepared
knives, in a horrific operation reminiscent of animal
sacrifice. The flesh around the limbs and neck was
first cut to the bones, which were slashed with a
single blow from an implement like a butchers
cleaver. The boy would have been stretched out
horizontally or upside down during the sacrifice and
kept there as the blood drained from the body.

Investigators discount the theory that the boy was the
victim of a so-called muti killing, where body parts
are taken to be used as medicine.

They now believe rich West Africans imported the boy
after hiring a specialist witch doctor to procure him
perhaps paying his family to allow him to be put to
work abroad. The child was well treated before he was
killed. Traces of cough medicine found in his stomach
indicate that someone wanted him in good health for
his execution.

Upcoming Ritual Abuse Conference


May 1, 2003

He drank slain hooker's blood

A SATAN-WORSHIPPING baby-faced vampire killer has confessed to beating
hooker to death while high on cocaine and drinking her blood.

But Perry Cerf, 20, insists the brutal slaying of Flo Andrade, 47, was

Sex offender Cerf, from Bergenfield, New Jersey, has officially pleaded
guilty to murder and rape.

But in a letter to the New York Daily News, he wrote: "Yeah, I killed
her. I
punched and kicked her to death, crushing her skull in the process.

"One of the kicks landed in such a way that it broke her neck and all
of a
sudden, her head was on backward. Since I have an unusual taste for
blood, I
drank and licked and lapped up my fill."

He also wrote: "Let it be known - I am Lucifer's Maiden servant, sent
Earth born of sin, to bring suffering and pain, darkness and evil."

Claiming to be gay, Cerf said he just wanted a massage but Andrade bit

In an interview, he admitted: "I just got carried away and the coke
in and I started punching and kicking her."

He dumped the body in a tarpaulin, then admitted the killing to a
who contacted the police.

Cerf was later arrested in Andrade's car for speeding. Cops discovered
had pasted his photo over the dead woman's driving license.

But he says he can't understand why prosecutors want a life sentence.

He said: "This is the first time I've ever killed anybody. I did not do
intentionally. I did not plan out a murder. It was a situation that


    There is increasing evidence that the United States and Canada are facing
a rapidly expanding area of criminal activity that some experts claim could be
the most difficult to detect of any that law enforcement agencies have ever
had to deal with.  The computer files of Criminal Intelligence Report (CIR)
magazine contain the names and addresses of three thousand Occult groups
located in the United States and Canada.  Within this listing are those who
have a general involvement with and/or interest in witchcraft or pagan
religious lore, history or practices (CIR/Category II).  Some of the
aforementioned groups and new ones that are being formed throughout North
America engage in satanic rituals.

    Recently there have been a number of incidents that have made both the
public and police agencies more aware of what purported satanic influence can
have on community health and safety.  In Texas, an undercover police officer
working on a drug distribution case in a high school was murdered by some
students who were alleged to be involved in satanism.  In Providence, Rhode
Island, a 21 year old man beat one small child to death after sexually
assaulting him and then killed another with a knife.  The suspect told his
arresting officers that he was "forced" to murder the two boys by "Satan".

    The January 7, 1988 edition of the Wall Street Journal reported that in
one county in Indiana fifteen bodies have been stolen from graves, there are
three "satanic cults" operating in the particular area and that one of the
groups (whose name is unknown by law enforcement) had one hundred members.

    The Journal article cited statements by a sheriff's investigator which
indicate that during the last few years a number of teenagers have committed
suicide in what now appears to have been under satanic related circumstances.

    On January 9, 1988 Thomas Sullivan, a fourteen year old Boy Scout and
outstanding student and athlete from Jefferson County, New Jersey committed
suicide after stabbing his mother two dozen times with his Boy Scout knife and
then trying to kill the rest of his family by setting the house on fire.
According to County Prosecutor Lee S. Trumbull, young Sullivan had begun
reading books on the "occult" and "Satan worship" a month previous to the

    In his very informative book The Ultimate Evil, investigative reporter
Maury Terry states that there is a satanic network that is related to the Son
of Sam killings and the Charles Manson and Arlis Perry slayings.  Terry
advises that Son of Sam defendent David Berkowitz was linked to a satanic cult
known as the "Process Church".

    CIR has ascertained that the demand for the book "The Satanic Bible" by
Anton Lavey is in such heavy demand by teenagers across America that the book
stores that do carry it are constantly sold out.  A book distribution company
in the Washington, D.C., area orders the book in gross lots and is usually
back ordered.  In this issue we have listed the CIR/Category II groups.
Msg#: 3146 *CULT_WATCH*
11/00/88 22:05:00 (Read 2 Times)


There  is a vast variety of different cults,  sects and  deviant  move-
ments  in  the United States today.   One estimate numbers  the  active
cults  at  between five and six hundred,  with two  thousand  potential
movements represented.   Keeping track of individual deviant movements,
even in one's own locality,  is a time consuming task,  however, under-
standing  some  common  traits  of these movements  will assist  us  in
recognizing them for what they are.

Most  religious and political  movements have a CHARISMATIC  FIGURE  at
the  head.    This  charismatic figure embodies the  authority  of  the
movement.    The  figure  generally claims an  extraordinary  or divine
experience  which  sets him apart from others or claims  some  type  of
special  political  ideology which is unique  in the time and  area  in
which it emerges.  The charismatic authority figure claiming  a  divine
revelation  will generally be at the head of a religious cult or  sect.
The  figure  claiming special political ideology will generally  be  at
the  head of a political movement.   Political and  religious  distinc-
tions are often blurred and combined so  various movements contain some
elements of religion as well  as  politics;   these are called identity
church  movements.    For the purpose of understanding the pure  forms,
the  following  information  will divide the movements  into  religious
versus political.

Any movement-whether or positive or negative in nature-generally occurs
during a period of "anomie."   The Greek word "nomos"  means "something
which gives structure and meaning."  Something which is "anomic"  takes
away or  reduces  structure.  The noun "anomie"   describes  a  time or
condition where  structure and meaning,   the orderly flow of civiliza-
tion,  is being  threatened  or  attacked by counter-culture influences
within  the  society.   During anomie societal  institutions   (such as
home, family,  church,  education,  government,  the military, law, and
justice)   undergo  severe attacks  and a dissolution of  public confi-
dence.  In the United States  a great anomic tendency surged during the
sixties and  seventies.  The Viet  Name  War years  and  Watergate gave
tremendous  impetuous  to  the  feeling of  anomie  in  individuals and
cultural groups.   In some  cases  anomic  feelings  are  intentionally
fostered to hasten the dissolution of stability.

Individuals can  undergo  temporary anomic periods in their  own lives.
During these  periods  the  individuals  are  more  susceptible  to the
influences of  counter-cultural  or deviant movements.  A   freshman in
college  or  a new recruit in the military...  both of whom  find them-
selves isolated in  strange  surroundings without their normal peer and
group  support...   are  in  a  position where they have to  search for
stability.  Farmers  who  just  had their family farms repossessed  and
adults  having  been  through  a recent divorce  experience  periods of
anomie.   If a deviant group takes precedence in a person's life during
an  anomic  period  it may capture that person's loyalty,  thought pat-
terns,  and  life behaviors for the rest of his life,  or that  group's
influence  may  decline  in proportion with the level of anomie  in the
person's life.   Mental instability aggravates the tendency of  persons
to fall under cult/deviant influence during anomic periods.

In  a religious context the authority which emanates from  the  charis-
matic authority figure translates into a "mission for  God".    Charis-
matic  figures  arise during periods of anomie.   They  are  agents  of
change.  In a political  context (such as the political philosophies of
Marx, Lenin,  and Mao), change occurs by following political ideologues
instead of  divine mandate.  These ideologues often embrace the philos-
ophy  that  "the end justifies the means",  that  there  is  no  higher
mission  than  the  political need,  and this mission transcends normal
moral law and values.  This transcendency opens the door  for political
ideologies to  attract  fanatics and extremists.  Their  activities and
beliefs  often violate the human and civil rights of others,   particu-
larly "non-believers" or nom-members of their group.

(This  profile applies  to every period of major change in the  history
of the world whether the change was for good or bad.)


Cults  should  be  distinguished from other groups such  as  sects  and
religions.   A  cult  is usually a small starting place  for  a deviant
movement.   As the  "cult"  philosophy gains momentum and adherents and
as society becomes accustomed to it,  the cult may change into a "sect"
which  is a bit more well-established.  Sects show more  stability  and
societal  acceptance  than  do cults.  As a sect grows  and  wins  some
popular  acceptance  and support it may one day be accepted by  society
asza  religion.   The progression from cult to sect to religion usually
is a process which occurs over a period of many years.

Cults  usually  have  core groups of fundamentalists,  whether  in  the
political,  religious, or religio-political context.  They are the ones
who  hold the "pure vision"  of where the cult should go.  Mixtures  of
philosophy  and ideology brought in by new converts to the cult tend to
dilute  the pure vision.   The dilution of the pure vision often  makes
the cult  more  acceptable  to society because more of society's values
are being represented in the cult.  Stress occurring between  fundamen-
talist and liberal factions may cause sub-groups to splinter off.
When a "sect"  passes to "religion"  status a combination of things has
occurred.  First,  the adherents to the religion normally  portray  few
traits  which are objectionable to society.  Society on the other hand,
has  learned to "live and let live"  and accepts the religion's beliefs
as "routine."

Various  cultic groups tend to have many factors in common,  especially
in  the progression of movement of uninitiated persons toward and  into
cult  involvement.  Cults attract followers from general  society.  The
followers  begin  to take on certain characteristics of the cult.   The
following  factors are pertinent to the identification of a group as  a
1.  Voluntary, achieved membership:   New adherents must pass some sort
of  test,  possibly a rite or ritual,  in order to achieve  member-
ship. Membership is sought after and does not occur accidentally or
incidental to some other societal activity.

2.  Members assume an  elitist self-image:   This self-image is spawned
and  fostered  by  the organization of the  cult.   Certain  "faith
maintenance  mechanisms"   are built into cult membership.    These
often  take the form of a series of rituals,    pledges,  oaths  or
tests of  worthiness.   There are also "boundary maintenance mecha-
nisms"   which tend  to  separate the cult member from the rest  of
society, from non-members, from family,  and from normal peer group
associations.  Cult members develop an "us versus them" mentality.

3.  Exclusivism:  Members believe that they are the "only ones with the
truth"   and (in some manner)   will be the only ones who  will  be
among  the  "saved remnant"  when some catastrophic  event  occurs.
Actually,  normal logical truth is irrelevant in the cult  context.
Some religious cults use "heavenly  deception"   for recruiting and
initiating  new members  deeper into the cult mechanism.  They also
use the process of "operative exclusivism"  which allows only those
who need to know to  become aware of certain privileged information
as they progress into  the cult.  There are usually numerous levels
of  information  that  are shared only with people who have  proven
their  loyalty  and worth  to the cult organization  and  therefore
have progressed upward in the organization.

4.  Hostility:   By the very nature of cult beliefs (which separate the
members  from  society and indoctrinate them into the  belief  that
cult members only possess the truth)  hostility towards society and
its  institutions is generated.  This hostility feeds on  individu-
al's hostile tendencies which were brought into the group.  On  the
other hand,  society is often prejudiced against the cult...  often
this is based on fear,  superstition or non-existent "facts".  Per-
ceived  hostility  from  society does nothing more  than  fuel  the
hostility  of  the  cult  member.  (This  is  a  key  principle  to
understand  when  contacting cult members in an effort to defuse  a
situation  or  gain  rapport  with  a  cult  member.   Face-to-face
confrontation  will generally tend to reduce avenues of  communica  tion.

5.  Acetism:   Members often display personal willingness to  sacrifice
self-comfort, finances and personal efforts for "the cause."  Cults
frequently demand  acetism  from their members.  Cults can generate
a great deal of financial support as they convince members to  turn
over  their  personal wealth and possessions to the group  for  the
"common good."

6.  Priesthood of All Believers:   This  term,  in a religious  context
means  that  all  those  initiated into the cult  membership  share
equal,  automatic  priesthood  and therefore share the authority of
the  cult.   There  are usually various levels of priesthood,   but
adherents   develop  tremendous  peer  support  and  identification
through  the "priesthood of all believers"  phenomenon.   Believers
are  convinced  they are very close to their god(s),  sometimes  in
contact with god(s) and sometimes gods themselves.

In  a political context the "priesthood of all believers"  phenome-
non  leads  to increasingly elitist feelings.    The perception  is that since
one is part of the select few he is somehow untouchable
by normal societal standards, morality,  laws,  and ethics.   He is
therefore  free  to  make  whatever changes necessary  or  to  take
whatever  actions seem appropriate at the time under the  "end-jus-
tifies-the-means"  philosophy.  This frequently manifests itself in
extremism and terrorism.

7.   Increasing Control Mechanisms:   The deeper a member proceeds into
cult  involvement,    the  wider the gap will become  between  that
person and his origins in society.  Control mechanisms are step-by-
step levels of  control  which  increasingly  attack  the  member's
independent thought  and freedom  of action.  Often control  mecha-
nisms are "mind control"  and "brainwashing" tactics.  They include
physical isolation,  deprivation of food,  sleep,  family and  peer
support  coupled with intensely repetitive indoctrination involving
little  opportunity  for   questions or evaluation  on  a  rational
scale.    Cults  have the potential to control every aspect  of  an
individual's life.   The  control mechanisms are powerful enough to
completely reprogram the  thinking and activities of the members to
coincide  with  the  authoritarian  philosophy of  the  charismatic
leader of the cult group.

A  three  part  written  account  details  the  process  whereby an
intelligent,  normally well-adjusted college student,  the daughter
of  a Baptist minister,   was enticed into the Unification  Church.
In a period of three days she was convinced that the philosophy  of
the group was "the only truth."  This preceeded months of  involve-
ment  where  the  girl became  increasingly  subject  to  the  mind
control  processes of the group.   Finally,  in desparation,   (all
other  attempts at reason having failed)   the family enlisted  the
aid  of a professional deprogrammer,"  kidnapped"  the daughter and
talked her out of the mind control mechanism.

As  a  cult grows  and survives it develops  ritualized  behaviors.
The charismatic figure may start to share his  authority with other

The  isolation  or  encapsulation  of  a cult or sect  group  which
includes  a  leader figure is a very dangerous situation. (Examples
such  as the Peoples Temple led by Jim Jones in Guyana and the  CSA
on a 150 acre tract of land in the south, had tragic results.)  The
physical  isolation  of a group by fences,  terrain  or  controlled
movements,  places the members completely  under  the power of  the
charismatic  figure.   Combined  with misguided philosophy  and  an
arsenal  of  weapons,   total control  of  suggestible  people  has
explosive  potential.    Conclaves of such isolationist  sects  are
found  in the South,  Northwest and West where open terrain  allows
them to flourish and survive with little interference.

8.   Elimination   of  Critical  Recourse:     Members of  cult  groups
seldom have  "critical resource".  This is the avenue which members
of  any movement are either given or denied.  When given it  allows
the members  to  question  those  in  authority through established
channels  and  tends  to filter out  aberrant  behavior  within  an
organized,   legitimate group or denomination.   Established  reli-
gions  have  such things as synods,   councils,  bishops,   elders,
deacons,   etc.,   or  some parallel political group  which  handle
complaints and questions  from  members about doctrines and philos-
ophies.   Critical recourse seldom  entails negative sanctions upon
the person exercising it in legitimate groups.

Members  of  deviant groups are rarely allowed  critical  recourse.
They  are  carefully restricted from the ability  to  criticize  or
question  anyone  in authority.  Open criticism  often  results  in
painful  sanctions against (or even the death of)   the member.  It
should  be  noted  that  the power of cult groups  comes  from  the
members  level  of  conviction and dedication,   and  authoritarian
control of the cult over members.

Many   cultic  and  sectarian groups are  multinational,   multimillion
dollar  corporations.    They are managed by competent  businessmen who
adhere  to the beliefs of the group.   A  recent report shows that onesuch
group,  the Unification Church,  grosses between 1 and 1.5 milliondollars
daily from  street sales and begging by its members.  The  Way
International,   not only  generates revenue by the gifts and donations
of  its  members,   but also charges fees for training  courses,  sells
souvenir articles  and printed material.   It even issues savings bonds
in the name of the organization.   The headquarters building of The Way
International  is  a five-million-dollar-plus structure.  The  Way  has
extensive property and equipment holdings.

The U.S.A.  has experienced a great upsurgence of cult and sect  activ-
ities  in  the two-plus decades since 1960.    As many as  25   million
people  in  the  United States are directly affected by cult  and
sectinfluence.   Historically,   the law enforcement community and military
are the least prepared  to  deal  with cult and sect influences.   This
ability  is  further  diminished  as deviant groups "hide"  behind  the
protection of the U.S. Constitution for legitimate religions.

Many  cult/sect  groups have well-trained,  disciplined  and  organized
agents  working to infiltrate the police and the military.   These  are
not fly-by-night operations, but well-financed thrusts.

There  are two basic structures seen in cults and sects.  The first  is
the   Authoritarian  model.    This can generally be  envisioned  as  a
pyramid  structure  with  the charismatic structure at the peak.    All
authority flows downward from  the charismatic  figure.   The authority
flow  may  include some trusted lieutenants who have earned the  confi-
dence  of the  leader.   The pyramid is made up of various levels  with
the lowest (entry level),  or worker level,  on the bottom.   There  is
high  encapsulation  of these levels.   Elitism  increases  as  members
proceed  up  the  pyramid structure and  information  is strictly  con-
trolled on a "need to know"  basis.  Members seldom know the true story
of  what's going on above them,  but must operate on what they are told
with little or no chance of questioning or criticism.

(illustration not reproduced)
The  second  structure can be called a  Nonauthoritarian model.    This
can be visualized as a wagon wheel with a hub,  spokes,  and peripheral
groups.   Although  there is a central headquarters,    the  individual
local  groups  generally have a degree of autonomy  not experienced  in
the  Authoritarian model.   The local groups may set up on  an  author-
itarian or  pyramidal basis or may be more "democratic"  in nature.  As
members progress through the hierarchy of the local structure they  may
earn the right to work in the headquarters group.

(illustration not reproduced)

There  are  certain dependent personality types which are  particularly
susceptible  to  the  lure  of cult involvement.    Some  cults  target
specific  age  ranges  toward which their  indoctrination  efforts  are

It is not uncommon for the 18  to 26  year old group to be targeted  by
groups because during this time the individuals'  minds are often still
in  a  questioning mode.   Life's values have not been  totally  solid-
ified.     They are still eager to try new things,  to be  accepted  by
peers  and to seek thrills.  They are also often  displaced from  their
support  structure and homes because of searches for jobs,   enlistment
in  the military,   or attendance at college.   Of the members of cults
who have been studied,  80%  display dependent personality types.  Some
key indicators of a dependent personality are:

1.  Intelligence
2.  Low self esteem
3.  Low achievement
4.  The feeling of not being lovable
5.  Feeling of isolation
6.  Problems dealing with stress
7.  Problems in social/sexual interaction

A youth displaying these traits,  (whether they are temporary in nature
because  of some change in his/her environment,  due to stress,  or are
indicators of the person's true psychological makeup)  can be described
as possessing a "classic addict mentality."   He or she is a  potential
addict  just  waiting  for an addiction to come  along.   Too  commonly
addiction comes in the form of alcohol and drug abuse.   However,  many
other  opportunities for unhealthy addiction are available,   including
membership and participation in negative deviant groups.  Chemical drug
and  alcohol  abuse  is   sometimes used  as  an  organized  recruiting
approach by  deviant  groups who take advantage of the addictive behav-
iors in potential "converts."

People  with addictive  mentalities are feeling emotional pain  because
of their unsuccessful relationships and feelings of inadequacy as  they
try to adjust to  their environment.  Addiction (to  substances or peer
groups)  is an effort to dull their personal pain,  if even for a short
period  of  time and to forget for a moment the  anxieties  and  stress
which haunt them.  Participation in an authoritarian movement or  other
deviant  group  is an addictive process.   The longer one is  involved,
the greater the control exercised by the group over the "addict."

Msg#: 3164 *CULT_WATCH*
11/06/88 23:06:34 (Read 1 Times)

That was correct in the past.  But look what Hitler did.  Hitler was able to
gain control and change the minds of millions through the media of his time.
Yes, most people are susceptible in transition phases but it also takes an
individual or organization to control.
--- TBBS v2.0
* Origin: Cult Monitor LA (818)566-1828  (102/744)

Msg#: 3172 *CULT_WATCH*
11/00/88 17:00:00 (Read 0 Times)
An excellent post regarding Cults, Sects, and Deviant Movements.
Unfurtunately, it doesen't address the basic problem as by the article's
definition, EVERYTHING is a cult - ALL Churches, ALL political Parties, All
Fraternities, ALL business organizations, etc. Everything except maybe an
individual fundementalist, and then only because he is an Individual and
believes that HE is the ONLY correct one in the universe. Where did the
article come from?

--- ConfMail V4.00
* Origin: Sara's Outpost - Jesus is the Co-Sysop of this BBS (1:109/705)


We now have proof children are being exported to the Middle East against their will! Click on this link to see and read this travesty of justice.

This may be one of the most important studies ever conducted on international child prostitution. Click on the link, then search for CSEC.



Saturday, August 10, 2002

WASHINGTON  A group of Americans took sexually explicit photographs of their own children, including at least one 2-year-old, and sent them over the Internet as part of an international child porn ring called "The Club," U.S. Customs officials said Friday.

"I've rarely seen crimes as despicable and repugnant," Customs Commissioner Robert C. Bonner said as he announced the arrests of 20 people in the U.S. and abroad.

Forty-five children, including 37 in the United States, were victims of the porn ring and have been removed from the care of those indicted, Customs officials said.

The American victims ranged from age 2 to 14, and 80 percent of them were allegedly molested by one of their own parents. Most of them are now in the custody of another parent or relative.

Bonner said he had never before seen a broad conspiracy among parents. "If this isn't unusual, God help us," he said.

All of the suspects are men except one Danish woman, Bente Jensen, who is charged with her husband, Eggert Jensen.

Among the U.S. citizens charged since January are chiropractor Lloyd Alan Emmerson of Clovis, Calif., who has pleaded innocent, and eight others named in a federal indictment unsealed Friday in Fresno, Calif. 

Those indicted include Harry Eldon Tschernetzki of Spokane, who was arrested May 9 on child sexual-exploitation charges and pleaded guilty Aug. 1. He has not yet been sentenced but faces a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years in prison, said Assistant U.S. Attorney Jim Shively in Spokane.

That charge concerned explicit photographs of Tschernetzki with his daughter, who is about 5, Shively said. The girl is now with her mother, who was not involved, he said.

The federal indictment includes additional charges against Tschernetzski, who has been in custody since his arrest, Shively said. He had been employed as a school janitor but worked nights and had no contact with children, Shively said.

Another, Jeffrey Naimo of Killeen, Texas, has pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20 years in prison, Bonner said.

An 11th American, Sean Bradley of Reno, Nev., committed suicide prior to the filing of formal charges.

Six residents of Denmark, Switzerland and the Netherlands also were indicted in Fresno, and the Justice Department is seeking their extradition to face charges, Bonner said.

Four other Europeans were charged abroad as part of the joint investigation with the Danish National Police that reached Belgium, Germany, England, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Customs officials said they would not identify them or specify their nationality because the investigation is ongoing.

Two Englishmen and two Germans face charges in their home countries, officials said.

The indictment alleges that members of the ring, referring to themselves as "The Club," traded messages across the Internet requesting photographs of specific sexual poses.

One man asked for an audiotape so he could hear a child crying while being spanked, the indictment said, and another posed naked with an underage girl.

In one instance, a man swapped his own children with another pedophile to be abused, Bonner alleged.

The investigation began when the international charity Save the Children found a picture of Eggert Jensen molesting his 9-year-old daughter on the Internet and reported it to Danish authorities. The Danish National Police traced Jensen through a company logo on the shirt he wore in the picture, said Customs special agent Mike Netherland.

Danish police found information on the Jensens' computer that was forwarded to the U.S. Customs Service and led to the arrest in January of Emmerson in Clovis, Calif.

Paul Whitmore and Brooke Rowland, both of San Diego, also were arrested in January based on information from Denmark, investigators said.

Searches of the California suspects' computers led to nine other U.S. citizens, Netherland said.

The other Americans facing charges include: Tracy Reynolds of Longview, Texas; Leslie Peter Bowcut, Burley, Idaho; Michael David Harland, West Palm Beach, Fla.; John Zill, Greeneville, S.C.; and Craig Davidson, Kansas City, Kan.

The six foreigners indicted in Fresno were identified as the Jensens of Denmark; Jean-Michael Frances Cattin, Marcel Egli and Peter Althaus of Switzerland; and Dirk-Jan Prins of the Netherlands. No hometowns were provided.

The charges of sexual exploitation of children, conspiracy to exploit children, and receiving and distributing child pornography each carry a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years to a maximum of 20 years. Some defendants could receive 60 years if convicted of all charges against them, Bonner said.

Authorities are still trying to identify other children in some of the explicit pictures, and more arrests are expected.

Bonner said the wide availability of child pornography on the Internet encourages pedophiles.

"Together we must find ways to protect our children and to starve the pedophiles of the sordid images that induce them to act," he said.

A few of those arrested received pictures but did not produce them, Bonner said.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.


Satanism ritual killings - report.


300,000 US children used as prostitutes - report.


A parent's guide to Satanism.


*Canada busts 'human traffickers'*

Canadian police arrest nine people who they say are part of a gang
which has smuggled more than 1,000 Asians to the US in the last year.


Children removed from church blamed for beatings

To learn more, visit


This article was sent to you by someone who found it on SF Gate.
The original article can be found on here:
Monday, August 12, 2002 (SF Chronicle)
Child porn suspect's neighbors reeling/Clovis parents say
chiropracter's photos made them uneasy
Pamela J. Podger, Chronicle Staff Writer

   Clovis, Fresno County -- A reticent chiropractor allegedly at the
of an international child pornography ring incessantly snapped photos
the children playing around his home, upset neighbors said Sunday.
   Shooing her children inside, one mother who lives across the street
there was something "odd" about Lloyd Alan Emmerson, 45, who constantly
photographed children petting dogs, splashing in pools or playing at
impromptu softball games.
   She became alarmed when a Clovis police detective told her that two
of her
daughters allegedly had been photographed in sexually suggestive poses
their swimsuits, and the images were among more than 1 million
from Emmerson's computer.
   "I always felt that he was kind of odd, but not dangerous," she
said. "He
always took pictures of kids, and not adults. My husband eventually
him to quit it because it made him uncomfortable. This is a
khakis and button-up-shirt doctor, not your typical scummy criminal."
   Emmerson's neighborhood isn't one of crime-ridden, boarded-up slum
dwellings. It is a placid cul-de-sac of stucco ranch-style homes. But
of the chiropractor's alleged link to child pornography has cast a pall
over the quiet streets.
   Down the street, a neighbor and father said Emmerson betrayed his
He said their children often played together, and Emmerson took unusual
digital photos of his daughter.
   "I'm very disturbed, and it really hit home," he said. "We had
some of the pictures he had taken. They were out of the ordinary and
your basic father's pictures."
   John Weaver, a Clovis police detective, said Emmerson had a secret
life --
surreptitiously taking sexually oriented digital photographs of his
patients, relatives and neighbors while his wife, Gina, held two jobs
shuttled their four children to classes and after-school activities.
Emmerson, Weaver said, also took photos of himself engaged in sexual
with some children.
   Reports of Emmerson's alleged activities shocked and dismayed people
Clovis, a city of about 75,000 near Fresno.
   Emmerson, housed in the Fresno County jail since Jan. 26, allegedly
sexually oriented pictures of about 20 Clovis children who were 14
to 14 years old. Weaver said five of the victims now live in Southern
California. In February, Emmerson pleaded innocent to state and federal
charges in connection with child pornography.
   In a 16-page federal indictment unsealed Friday, Emmerson was
described as
a key photographer and distributor of child pornography in a conspiracy
that started in 1999. Ten other suspects were arrested in Denmark,
Belgium, Germany, England, Switzerland and the Netherlands.
   Weaver said many of the illicit pictures were taken quickly,
when the parents were present but distracted momentarily. He said the
images have been traced to and arrests made of pedophiles in Texas,
Florida, Washington, South Carolina and Kansas.
   "He would tell the parents he wanted to get into photography,"
said. "And he could do a quick photograph in a fraction of a second. .
. .
The parents thought that Lloyd was a nice guy. They were baffled about
and why this could have happened."
   Police also found chat board messages between Emmerson and a Danish
friend, Eggert Jensen, regarding their preferences in pictures. He also
allegedly asked Jensen for an audiotape of a child crying as she was
spanked or otherwise abused.
   "He gave us a statement initially where he owned up to the
of taking the first set of pictures that we had," Weaver said. "Since
case has exploded like this, he has made no other statements."
   A call Sunday to Emmerson's lawyer, H. Ronald Sawl, was not
   Weaver said the defendants, who referred to each other as members of
Club," would send messages on the Internet and request images of
in sexually explicit acts.
   Forty-five children were involved around the world, with 37 in the
States. About 80 percent of the victims were molested by their own
parents, according to U.S. Customs Service agents who investigated the
   The Danish National Police notified customs agents in November that
Emmerson was allegedly involved in a child pornography ring that they
investigating. One customs agent in Fresno then forwarded four pictures
Clovis police.
   At this point, Weaver said, police are still trying to identify
in some of the images. He said molestation shown in the photos involved
oral copulation, digital penetration, intercourse and lewd acts.
does not appear in all the photos, and police are trying to determine
whether he obtained some of the photos from someone else.
   Weaver said Emmerson's wife is not a suspect.
   "From our standpoint now, there are no other suspects in the Fresno
Weaver said. "But we're at the tip of the iceberg."
   The neighbors have rallied around Emmerson's children and wife.
   "I feel so bad for his kids," said one neighbor. "You don't get to
who your parents are or what they do."
   E-mail Pamela J. Podger at
Copyright 2002 SF Chronicle


Porn Biz Has a Net Stalker,1284,54627,00.html

By Noah Shachtman

An Internet stalker is haunting the porn industry.

In recent months, blue-movie luminaries have received dozens of
e-mails, from aliases like "zodiac_killer" and "pornhater2002," filled with
racial epithets and grisly descriptions of murder and torture.

"(Porn director) Rob Black's a piss-drinkin', shit-eatin' rodent. I'll
stab 'til dead 3 times over both him and the sewage called his wife,"
reads a typical rant.

Some in the adult entertainment community say they're unfazed by the
screeds. But the messages have gotten so voluminous, and so creepy, that
the FBI has begun to investigate.

"I have received about a hundred hateful e-mails," Jenna Jameson, the
X-rated superstar, posted to Gene Ross Extreme, a website devoted to
porn industry gossip. "I have forwarded them to the FBI. So many of his
e-mails are threatening and just flat out scary. He is the type a (sic)
guy who slips a gear and ends up killing people!"

Making interstate "threats to injure" is a federal crime, punishable by
up to five years in the clink and a fine. So is using a
"telecommunications device" to harass someone, and it carries a maximum sentence of
two years.

The blue movie business attracts more than its fair share of the
panting brown-overcoat crowd. But acts of violence are rare -- the shooting
of Hustler magazine magnate Larry Flynt is the notable exception. Online
stalking is rarer still, according to industry insiders. One performer,

Christy Lake, said she's never been electronically harassed. Dave
Cummings, the 62-year-old star of the Sugar Daddy skin-flick series, said
that before now, he had only received one violent threat in seven years
-- and the guy apologized a few days later.

Lately, however, this dynamic has begun to change. A recent letter from
a "Chad Luke," sent to several porn production houses, compared
smut-mongers to terrorists.

Then there's Bryan Sullivan, who admitted last August on Gene Ross
Extreme to breaking into the website of actress Samantha Sterling.

In the summer of 2001, Sullivan became a frequent contributor to the
raucous discussions of the blue movie business on Gene Ross Extreme and, another gossip site. High-end porn performers, he wrote in
a typical post, "have the audaciousness to think that they are the
betters of the whores that get pissed on, slapped around, shit and spit

These kinds of comments were considered fair game, even typical, for
these sites. But this spring, Sullivan's mass e-missives broke these
flimsy boundaries, and entered the realm of the downright scary. "Fucking
butt-ugly gook [Tera Patrick]; shoot one dead today!" was the title of
one message, dated April 5, referring to a popular starlet.

A day earlier, Sullivan e-mailed Rodger Jacobs, an adult movie
screenwriter who contributes to under the name "Martin Brimmer" --
that "cyberstalking is an equal opportunity crime but porn stars are
more likely to be harassed (by me in particular)."

Sullivan then went on to describe the various ways he could locate
personal information about an actress.

"I can see exactly where she lives," he wrote. "Convenient, since she's
not answering my repeated threatening e-mails and I've been thinking
about paying her a visit."

On April 9, Tony Olson, a security official at Road Runner, the
high-speed ISP, sent Sullivan a warning that the company had received
complaints of harassing e-mail from his account.

That same day, the FBI came calling.

"They went through my hard drive and looked at all my e-mails and one
of them said, 'This is more comical than threatening,'" Sullivan told
Jacobs. "They said that they don't need this aggravation and for me to
watch what I

do and tone it down and hopefully I won't have to hear from them

Sullivan did not respond to multiple invitations to comment on this

E-mails from "zodiac_killer" and "pornhater2002" began appearing in the
inboxes of the adult community around the same time. Several of these
messages were addressed to Sullivan. In turn, many of Sullivan's e-mails

were now addressed to "zodiac_killer" or "pornhater2002."

"Filthy Smelly Gooks Tera Patrick, Wanker Wang" was the title of one
message from "pornhater2002." A message from "pornhater" on May 16 was
particularly toxic. The message was signed, "Sir Sylvester Sullivan."
Although the e-mails seem to implicate Sullivan, there is no evidence that
he is behind them.

For Dave Cummings, this was too much. Cummings -- a purported 25-year
veteran of the Army who earned a bronze star in Vietnam -- contacted the
FBI field office in his hometown of San Diego.

The FBI is taking the matter seriously, Cummings said. There's now an
"active investigation" underway, with Cummings serving as liaison to the
lewd community. Through him, the e-mails that shocked the most
unflappable of industries are being sent to the San Diego office of the FBI.

The FBI won't publicly comment on the case. But one agent involved
said, "We're at square one with this thing. There are a whole lot of other
people we're going to have to get involved."


Caught in the Kid Porn Crusade

The United States of America v. Adam Vaughn
He was a stand-up Marine, a beloved cop, and a local hero until
the government branded him part of the largest kid porn ring in

Inside Operation Candyman, the FBI's crusade to sweep the Net clean of
child abuse.

By Steve Silberman

On October 1, 2001, a caravan of police cars drove north out of
Madison, Alabama, in the middle of the night. At the wheel of the town
paddy wagon was Adam Vaughn, a 34-year-old patrolman who joined the
force after 12 years in the Marine Corps. Responding to a national
plea for assistance from the NYPD after the attacks on the World Trade
Center, the volunteers made the 800-mile journey in less than a day. 

Their first assignment was to guard the Empire State Building. Over
the next week, Vaughn and the other Madison officers stood watch in
Times Square, at the United Nations, and at the Immigration and
Naturalization Service, where suspected terrorists were detained. When
they returned to Alabama, their photo ran on the front page of the
Madison County Record under the headline "HEROES COME HOME." Cards
from schoolchildren poured in to police headquarters, and the officers
received commendations from the governor and the state House of
Representatives. Vaughn and his wife, Rebecca, added the citations to
what they jokingly called their Wall of Shame: a display of the medals
and certificates of achievement Vaughn had earned in uniform. 

The next time Vaughn's name appeared in the news, however, he was not
a hero. Last spring, he and 88 others were arrested in a child
pornography dragnet called Operation Candyman, named after one of
three Yahoo! groups that had been the focus of an FBI investigation.
The people in these groups, the bureau reported, were members of "an
international ring of pedophiles and predators devoted to trading and
propagating pornographic images of children over the Internet." 

At a press conference on March 18, attorney general John Ashcroft
brandished a pointer in front of a map marked with badges where FBI
field offices had made arrests. The badges stretched from coast to
coast. "A new marketplace for child pornography has emerged in the
dark corners of cyberspace," he said. "There, hidden in the vastness
of the Internet, innocent boys and girls have been targeted by
offenders who view them as sexual objects." With the bureau under
increasing heat in the aftermath of 9/11, the smashing of "the largest
child porn ring in history" made headlines as far away as Iceland and

The Candyman site offered everything from "soft pics" to hardcore

Vaughn's arrest sent shock waves through the town of Madison, a
closely knit bedroom community for the nearby city of Huntsville.
"This was a surprise to us," Madison chief of police Dan Busken told
reporters. "Adam Vaughn was well liked, trusted, and respected by his
peers." The footage of the baby-faced officer returning from New York
was re-aired, but this time it took on a sinister aura. Overnight,
Vaughn changed from a beloved neighborhood cop into a pariah.

For a young agent in Texas named Geoff Binney, that press conference
marked the public debut of a yearlong investigation. Binney's father,
David, is a legend at the FBI; the former deputy director, he was a
lead investigator in cases that are still the stuff of bureau lore,
such as the Pizza Connection heroin busts in the 1980s. Geoff, a
charismatic, ambitious 33-year-old who wanted to follow in his
father's footsteps since he was 4, was the Houston case agent for the
FBI's task force known as Innocent Images. 

Since its launch in 1995, Innocent Images which is devoted to
tracking down those who use the Net to sexually exploit children and
teenagers has grown into a $10 million-a-year operation, with
agents in every field office in the country. Most investigations focus
on so-called traveler cases. Agents pose as minors in sexually
oriented chat rooms; if a suspect sets up an offline meeting with an
agent and crosses state lines for the explicit purpose of having sex,
an arrest is made at the rendezvous. As the father of three young
boys, Binney was frustrated that traveler stings do little to protect
those kids who are too young to be chatting online. "It takes a lot of
time to cultivate someone in a chat room," he explains. "We wanted to
work smarter."

To snare predators who were going after younger kids, Binney conceived
of a strategy, he says, to "cast a wider net." He became an avid
reader of an online newsletter called Lolita News, where pedophiles
listed pointers to images on other sites. On January 2, 2001, he
followed a link to the Candyman. "This is a site for people who love
kids," read the welcome message on the page for joining the group.
"You can post any type of message you like to or any type of pics and
vids you like to. P.S. If we all work together we will have the best
group on the Net."

Like many online groups, the Candyman offered a polls section, where
the group's moderator asked members such questions as whether they
preferred "more actions [sic]" or "more soft pics." There was also a
page of links to other sites, and a file area, where images uploaded
by members were stored. Each time a new image was added, a notice was
generated and sent out to those who had opted to receive Candyman

Binney scrutinized the "pics and vids" on the site. Though some of
them fell into the category of child erotica voyeuristic "soft
pics" of kids on the beach and on the playground others were

10-year-old girls giving oral sex to middle-aged men, 9-year-old boys
touching themselves, and toddlers being penetrated by adults. Binney
recognized many of these photographs from previous investigations.
Some 30-year-old collections from Denmark and Sweden have made the
rounds for years. But he also saw a number of new, high-quality
digital images on the site. Unlike most child-porn servers, which are
based in other countries, the Candyman and two related groups,
Shangri-la and Girls 12 to 16, sat on a server under US jurisdiction,
which made them ideal targets for Binney and his team. 

In mid-January, the Houston office faxed a grand jury subpoena to
Yahoo! requesting information about those who had joined the groups.
In response, the Yahoo! legal team provided a list of email addresses
for Candyman members. Binney also asked that the groups be kept open
as new suspects poured in. On February 6, however, Yahoo!'s customer
care department shut down the Candyman for violating Yahoo!'s terms of
service, which prohibit the posting of illegal material.

Over the next several months, the Houston office sent a flurry of
subpoenas and court orders to Yahoo!, requesting more detailed
information about each member's activity on the site. Binney's team
compiled a roster of approximately 6,700 members in all three groups,
including several thousand who lived in the US. Then the team
subpoenaed 1,400 ISPs and gathered information on hundreds of
individuals, sending out leads to field offices from Anchorage to

Some ISPs, Binney says, were slow to cooperate. And after September
11, the investigations were hampered by the fact that bureau resources
were diverted to chasing leads on terrorism. But at the beginning of
this year, there was "pressure from above," Binney recalls, to
expedite the national takedown and give Operation Candyman its star
turn in Washington.

The Houston squad sent out affidavits to obtain warrants to search the
homes of more than 200 Candyman members. To support probable cause
that investigators would be likely to find illegal images on each
member's home computer, the bureau provided a statement from Binney:
"Every email sent to the group was distributed to every member
automatically. Therefore, when an individual transmitted child
pornography to the Candyman via email, those images were transmitted
to every one of the group's members."

In fact, however, most members had opted not to receive email. Binney
claims that, in his investigation of the site, he never saw the
numerous hyperlinks that would have led him to a list of email
options. The one such link he tried didn't work on the day he joined
the site, he says. A document produced by Yahoo! in January, in
response to an FBI court order, indicated that various email options
were available to Candyman members, but this detail was overlooked by
the Houston team.

In the spring, FBI agents executed searches in 231 homes and made 89
arrests. By July, an additional 281 searches some with
warrants, some with consent from the suspects under investigation
had been conducted, yielding 14 more arrests.

"One click, you're guilty," says an FBI agent. "A federal offense is
that easy."

"If you had every agent in the bureau working these cases there would
always be more," Binney observes. "So we tried to identify those
individuals in positions of trust." On the member list were
firefighters, paramedics, priests, teachers aides, Little League
coaches, hospital workers, and several police officers, including one
in Alabama Adam Vaughn.

Vaughn grew up in an Idaho logging town called Post Falls, where his
parents worked for a company that made computer keyboards. The family
didn't have much money; one of their rare extravagances was the
purchase of a Magnavox Odyssey², a videogame console with a
keyboard that allowed players to code their own games in Basic. As a
geeky kid who learned to read by immersing himself in comic books,
Vaughn instantly felt at home in virtual space. He created hybrid
versions of games, grafting the tank from Conquest of the World into
the universe of K. C. Munchkin.

The late '70s was also the golden age of arcade games. When his
parents dragged him to the local bowling alley, Vaughn recalls,
"They'd get sauced, hand me a fistful of quarters, and say, 'Go knock
yourself out.'" His father may have been an early adopter, but he was
also taciturn and abusive to Vaughn. At 15, Vaughn walked to a
friend's house and never returned home. A year later, in 1984, his
parents signed a recruitment form, and he enlisted in the Navy.

"I was ecstatic about joining the military," he told me. "I was so
bored at school. What my teachers taught in a month, I learned in two

I wanted to get away from everything and do something challenging."

In 1986, he transferred to the Marines. The Corps offered what he'd
been seeking in military life: "The spit and polish, the brotherhood,
the strong ties, the sense of belonging." His first section leader
required that his infantrymen spend an hour a day absorbing books like
Sun Tzu's The Art of War. But Vaughn's favorite reading in the
curriculum was Orson Scott Card's novel Ender's Game, about a gifted
boy named Ender Wiggin who is recruited by the military to play
war-game simulations. At the end of the book, Ender realizes that the
games are real, and that his agile mind is being employed as a weapon
in a war against an enemy race.

Vaughn worked his way up through the ranks to become a lance corporal.
He shipped out to Korea and Japan, and he served on special-operations
squads in Central America. By 1989, he had earned a post as an
instructor on the base at Quantico, the crossroads of the Marine
world. There, he led classes of 200 senior officers in small-unit
tactics, leadership skills, and Marine history and tradition. To
supplement his $12,000 annual salary, he picked up jobs on the side.
He met his wife-to-be at a mall in Virginia where he was working as a
security guard.

A tall, sassy, green-eyed Army lieutenant colonel's daughter, Rebecca
Coffin was tickled by the way Vaughn's mind seemed eager to absorb
everything, like the endless stream of facts he gleaned from nature
shows on TV. "Adam had somehow retained that thing inside that keeps
you fresh," she recalls. They were married in 1991. 

After a physical exam determined that he had suffered hearing loss on
the shooting range, Vaughn became an information systems administrator
for the Corps' enormous personnel database. To relax, he jammed on
Jane's flight simulators such as Longbow, which came with manuals of
authentic military history. When jarhead coders wrote their own
version of Doom II, putting players in landscapes that resembled the
Iraqi desert and other likely theaters of battle, Vaughn played it day
and night. Once, a sergeant gave him a guided tour of adult chat rooms
on AOL. Within minutes, pictures were arriving in the officer's inbox.

"I realized I wouldn't have to buy Playboy anymore," Vaughn says.

Three years after being transferred to Redstone Arsenal in Alabama,
Vaughn, who was by then a sergeant, was honorably discharged from the
Marines for "high year tenure" in the aggressive quota system
of the Corps, he hadn't been promoted fast enough. A Marine colonel
told him that the town of Madison was hiring cops and offered to write
a recommendation. Ten days later, Vaughn signed up at the police
academy and put on a new uniform.

At 5'6", Vaughn made a compact and boyish-looking officer, but his
years in the Corps were still visible in his level temperament and
steady gaze. He was assigned to work the third shift, which began at
10 pm. He patrolled the neighborhoods, responded to domestic-violence
calls, worked undercover, and got to know the rhythms of traffic on
the roads. Every night when he arrived at the Waffle House to meet a
fellow officer for "lunch" at 1:30 am, their coffees would be waiting
in the back booth.

Vaughn plunged into the spirit of community policing with the same
enthusiasm he had embraced semper fidelis. At Quantico, he had taught
classes in the law of war. In his new job, the syllabus was the Bill
of Rights. He persuaded a waitress at the Waffle House to go to law
school. "If you wanted to turn yourself around, Adam was there. If you
wanted to straighten up, he'd help you," one felon he arrested told
me. On his off nights, he brought candy and smokes to the 911 crew.

Rebecca began to notice a change in her husband. His old armor was
softening. "He had finally found his niche. He met people he was
comfortable with. He was making friends." She sewed the S from a
Superman T-shirt onto his bulletproof vest.

At the end of his shift, Vaughn's patrol car would pull into the
driveway as Rebecca was getting dressed to go to work as a contract
specialist for the Army Corps of Engineers. When she left, he read
science fiction and watched cartoons. Then he logged on. With the
Madison police band on his radio and the Huntsville band streaming in
on RealPlayer, he checked out the latest anime, participated in
discussion forums on cop sites, downloaded new codes for his
GameShark, and hunted for rare comic books on eBay.

It was as if he had been training his whole life to surf the Web. When
he was online, he says, he felt like he was flying. 

For decades, the federal government's war on child pornography focused
on arresting the manufacturers and traffickers of the images. The
target was alleged molesters like those accused by the Customs
Service in August of exploiting their own children and photographing
the abuse not people who simply possessed pictures at home.
That emphasis changed in 1990, when the Supreme Court wrote in Osborne
v. Ohio that "much of the child pornography market has been driven
underground; as a result, it is now difficult, if not impossible, to
solve the child pornography problem by only attacking production and
distribution." To eradicate it required eliminating not just the
existing supply of images but also the demand for new ones. A ban on
private possession, the justices reasoned, would reduce demand and
also encourage those who held on to the few illegal images still in
circulation to destroy them. At the time of the ruling, practically
the only publishers of child-porn magazines left in the US were law
enforcement agencies, who used them as bait in sting operations.

What the high court did not foresee was that a shift in the
underground would soon transform the child-porn world. In the
mid-'80s, porn collectors had started using dialup bulletin boards as
a way to store and exchange images without risking capture by customs
agents and postal inspectors. As the technology evolved, these BBSes
became the axis of a sophisticated global distribution network. Zipped
and encrypted caches of illegal porn were posted to Usenet newsgroups
like, often containing
thousands of still and video images. Pointers to these collections and
to sites containing passwords for unlocking the encrypted files were
posted on the BBSes. Photographs taken in the Czech Republic might be
uploaded onto a server in Africa, downloaded in London, and displayed
with a password fetched from the South Pacific. 

When the Web took off in the mid-'90s, illegal material that had been
contained within this small, highly secretive, and tech-savvy
subculture suddenly radiated far and wide. Images that once were
accessible to only a self-selecting few were now a search engine away
from any casual netsurfer. The bogus network addresses and strong
encryption were replaced by a torrent of spam and pop-up ads from
offshore servers, proffering "teen lolitas" and "hardcore XXX child
pics." Thousands of illegal sites that might have lasted an hour or a
week flourished on free homepage networks like Angelfire and
GeoCities. Those who would never have ventured into a sleazy shop for
under-the-counter contraband like Children Love and Bambina Sex could
view the same images at home, under a perceived cloak of anonymity. As
one FBI agent put it, "Even my friends can't believe there's a federal
offense that's so easy to commit. One click, you're guilty."

Possession of child porn is a strict-liability offense, like
possession of cocaine. Possessing it, though, does not only mean you
have intentionally downloaded and stored the images on your hard
drive. Under Title 18 of the US Code, the felony is committed the
first time sexually explicit images of minors defined as anyone
under 18 appear on your screen. If your computer is searched,
even files that have been dragged to the trash or cached by your
browser software are counted as evidence. Some offenders have been
sent to jail for "possessing" images that only a computer-forensics
technician can see.

One striking characteristic of the Candyman members was their apparent
carelessness compared with those who traded images a decade ago behind
redundant layers of anonymity. Many joined the group with
standard-issue webmail addresses that contained their names, dates of
birth, or clues to their location such as the "rsa" in Vaughn's
address, which stood for Redstone Arsenal. These netsurfers may have
comprised the largest "international ring of predators and pedophiles"
ever discovered, but they were also among the least cautious. They
practically emailed themselves to prison.

The first-time offender was denied bail the order came from
"much higher up."

In the Marines, Vaughn learned to divide his life into two parts: on
duty and off duty. "Home was his shelter, his sanctuary, his place to
be something other than a Marine," Rebecca told me. "At work, he was
Officer Vaughn. When he was home, he was Adam." 

Like his namesake in the Old Testament, Adam was curious. His
inquisitiveness ranged widely, from fast cars, to marine biology, to
model building, to sex. He used search engines to explore free porn
sites that served up every kind of sexual imagery he could think of
amateur, barely legal, gay, voyeur, and sites for sexy seniors.
There were thousands of these on Yahoo!, which inherited them in
August 2000 after acquiring a company called eGroups. On the sign-up
pages for these sites, there was often only a vague indication of what
was to be found inside, and no images displayed. To see what was
behind the door, you had to type in your email address and join the

"One link would lead to another, and then another, and then another,"
Vaughn recalls. "In my mind, I would say, 'You know this is wrong. You
know you're not supposed to be doing this.' But I wasn't soliciting
anyone. I wasn't uploading anything. I knew it was really bad, but I
didn't know it was really, really, really bad." Like Ender Wiggin in
Orson Scott Card's novel, he thought he was playing a kind of game
not real war. 

He would open dozens of windows at once, drinking it all in:
right-click, Save As, right-click, Save As. Then he would sift the
downloaded files into different folders to look at later, sending the
ones that didn't interest him to the trash. One of the many folders on
his hard drive was called Too Young.

And at 7:37 am PST on January 26, 2001, a Yahoo! server logged his
email address as he signed in to a
group called the Candyman.

Just as gaining access to illegal porn has become easier in the online
era, so has hunting down those who access it. A decade ago,
infiltrating a ring of porn traders would have required months of
undercover work. Often, even the members of these groups did not know
one another's real names.

Most offenders were apprehended in "controlled delivery" stings. A
suspect would either solicit porn from an undercover agent or answer
an ad placed by the US Postal Inspection Service frequently in
gay publications like The Advocate for magazines or VHS tapes
by mail. When the package was delivered, the suspect was arrested.
Investigators routinely gave priority to suspects with a history of
sex offenses, targeting them with direct-mail ads for child porn or
for fictitious organizations devoted to the repeal of age-of-consent
laws. In a significant number of cases, illegal material was
discovered when an offender's home was searched during the
investigation of another sex crime.

The online version of a controlled delivery sting can be as simple as
posting an invitation on a Web site. Last December, state police in
New Jersey busted the owner of one child-porn site, took it over, and
made a special offer to its visitors: "Greetings! I have been having
major financial and, unfortunately, technical difficulties in
maintaining the site much of my great content has been lost or
destroyed." Those who sent in more "content" were promised free
subscriptions. The digital images came streaming in. Operation Web
Sweep netted nearly 200 offenders in 29 states and 16 countries. In an
"Ask the FBI" webchat last year, special agent Pete Gulotta observed,
"It's like fishing in a pond full of hungry fish. You throw lines in
with bait. You really don't know how many fish are in the pond until
you stop catching them."

As a result, the number of investigations is increasing. In the past
three years, the FBI has boosted resources for hunting down child porn
by tenfold. A spokesperson for EarthLink says the ISP receives at
least 15 subpoenas a week related to child porn. According to the
Justice Department, prosecutors' offices across America handled more
Net porn cases last year than any other computer-related crime. The US
is not alone. The police in Northern Ireland have announced that they
work 15 such cases a day. In Britain, Operation Magenta recently
nailed a 15-year-old for possessing "paedophilic" images, while
Operation Appal busted six boys under the age of 17 in dawn raids. In
evidence rooms all over the world, hard drives, Zip disks, and CD-ROMs
containing illegal images are piling up faster than forensics experts
can examine them.

Compared with those snared in previous eras, a high proportion of
suspects apprehended in Net sweeps are first-time offenders. "The vast
majority of people who have been arrested as part of Innocent Images
are people who have never been charged with or even suspected of
crimes against children," says Gulotta. 

In the Candyman cases, the suspects' naïveté about the legal system
expedited the process of investigating them. Two defendants in Houston
Christopher Tinney and Stephen Johnston, both 21
confessed the moment agents arrived at the door to having downloaded
illegal porn. Neither had uploaded a single file to the Candyman site,
but both were charged with conspiracy to distribute child porn in
addition to possession. Denied bail after being pronounced dangers to
the community by a US magistrate, they spent the past year in jail
while their lawyers negotiated plea bargains. Tinney's attorney, Paul
Mewis, was told that the order to deny bail had come from "much higher
up." In July, they pleaded guilty to reduced charges simple
possession but not conspiracy and are facing sentences of up to
five years in prison.

Very few child-porn cases ever go to trial. Defense attorneys know
that few jurors will stomach looking at more than an image or two
before pronouncing a defendant guilty. Threatened with a separate
felony conviction for each illegal file found on their computers,
nearly all suspects in these cases plead to simple possession or
possession plus trafficking, drawing jail terms of sometimes five
years or more. There is no parole in the federal prison system. Time
sentenced is time served.

Because so many of these cases end in plea bargains, the investigative
process is not subject to the same level of scrutiny as when a
defendant goes to trial, and the body of existing case law is scant.
In the Candyman operation, the fact that the search warrants contained
the erroneous assumption that all members received email from the
group did not come to light until this summer, after many defendants
had already pleaded guilty.

With most Candyman members opting not to receive email, the bureau's
probable cause for search in most cases rested on an email address
which anyone on the Net could have entered and the IP
address of the computer used at the time the alleged member joined the
group. Because Yahoo! did not keep logs of individual visits to the
Web site, there was no way to know, before a search, if a suspect had
ever gone back to look at the site after becoming a member. And even
those who quickly unsubscribed from the group were searched.

The enabling technology behind these crimes is so new that Net porn
cases often hinge on geeky details like email options and
network addressing that are beyond the computer expertise of
many defense attorneys, prosecutors, and judges. At the bail hearing
for Johnston, Tinney, and three other defendants in Houston, the FBI's
Kristen Sheldon, who succeeded Binney as the case agent for the
ongoing investigation, testified that an IP address is, "in very
simple terms, a Social Security number. Only one person at one
specific time can have that number." In fact, an IP address identifies
a computer, rather than a person, and may not even consistently map to
a particular machine in networks that use dynamic IP addressing.
Midway through the hearing, the presiding US magistrate asked, "What
are GIF files?"

While these offenses have become easier to commit and to prosecute,
the stigma around all crimes of exploitation against children has
exerted a chilling effect on public discourse. In Beyond Tolerance:
Child Pornography on the Internet, Philip Jenkins writes, "Most
academic or journalistic American accounts of child pornography were
researched and written in the late 1970s and early 1980s... The
ferocious legal prohibitions on viewing child porn images have had the
effect of virtually banning research."

Binney mounted his assault on the Candyman by mapping a four-tier
hierarchy of offenders. Tier fours were those who looked at child
pornography; tier threes were those who circulated it; tier twos
manufactured it; and tier ones were active abusers in close proximity
to potential victims.

A small number of people arrested seemed to match the tier-one
profile. When Robert Froman was taken into custody in Houston, he
confessed to molesting his 13-year-old daughter. The Candyman
moderator, a 

33-year-old named Mark Bates, had two prior convictions (one as a
juvenile) for offenses against children. He pleaded guilty in July. 

At the original press conference in March, the Department of Justice
announced that 27 members of the Candyman had confessed to
molestation. By July, after another couple of hundred searches and
more arrests, FBI spokesperson Angela Bell put the number at 41. But
the same day I spoke with Bell, agent Sheldon told me, "That number is
wrong." Of the 104 arrested, the actual tally of confessed abusers,
Sheldon said, is 14. She also said that none of the images on the
Candyman had been linked with these crimes, which happened, in some
cases, many years ago. 

And although the attorney general declared in May that Operation
Candyman had "uncovered over 7,200 child pornographers who trafficked
their obscenity through a single Internet group," Sheldon says only "a
very small number, a very small percentage" of members had ever
uploaded images to the Candyman. The vast majority of those arrested,
like Johnston and Tinney, seem to have been tier fours: people who
looked at child pornography but were not engaged in its production or
circulation, or in acts of molestation. In the lexicon of the online
world, they were lurkers.

These numbers call into question one of the core tenets behind law
enforcement actions against child-porn surfers that those who
are "just looking" are on the road to molestation. In the wake of the
Candyman arrests, Westchester County DA Jeanine Pirro told CNN, "The
truth is that 20 to 40 to 50 percent of those who possess child
pornography have actually admitted to molesting children. So there is
a correlation." Outside of law enforcement press releases, however,
the notion that viewing porn is a gateway to molestation as
marijuana was once considered a gateway to heroin is very
difficult to prove.

The most widely cited evidence of a correlation comes from Ray Smith
at the US Postal Inspection Service. Since the passage of the Child
Protection Act in 1984, inspectors from the "silent service" have
arrested more than 3,600 alleged pornographers and child molesters. In
the past five years, Smith says, 36 percent of those arrested by his
agency were identified as actual abusers.

That 36 percent figure has taken on a life of its own, often cited as
pertaining to images viewed online. "In the US, 36 percent of men
convicted of downloading child pornography have subsequently been
convicted of sexually abusing children," an academic in Europe
confidently told the press last spring. Postal inspector Mike Bain
claims that his agency's experience suggests that "normally" an
interest in child porn leads to molestation. "If they're in it long
enough," he says, 

"they gradually work their way toward molesting children." Since the
stings conducted by the Postal Inspection Service frequently target
those with prior convictions for sex offenses, however, it is perhaps
not surprising that a high proportion of repeat offenders who mail or
solicit illegal images and videos are involved in abuse. What is
unclear, however, is how closely this 36 percent maps to those with no
previous offenses who look at porn on the Net.

If viewing child porn online acted as a gateway to molestation, an
explosion of it on the Web should have triggered rising rates of child
sexual abuse. And it has in the impoverished countries where
most of the illegal material is manufactured these days, such as
Thailand, South America, and Eastern Europe. In the US, however, where
the contraband images have their largest audience, rates of sex crimes
against children are falling sharply.

Last year, the Crimes Against Children Research Center, funded in part
by the Department of Justice, completed a study that revealed that
rates of reported child sex abuse in the US have dropped by 30 percent
in the past 10 years. The center's director, David Finkelhor,
attributes this to effective public education, a general improvement
in such child-welfare indicators as teen pregnancy and child poverty,
and aggressive prosecution and treatment of those who abuse. Although
he expresses concern that in certain people easy access to child porn
might help develop the proclivity to abuse, or reduce the inhibitions
against acting on those impulses, he says flatly, "There is no
evidence that the Internet is fueling an explosion of child sexual
abuse." He adds that "pornography is not one of the major causal
factors" in the abuse of kids.

According to the Department of Justice, in 86 percent of reported
cases of child sexual abuse, the offenders didn't need a computer to
gain access to their victims. The abusers were the victims' parents,
siblings, other relatives, or neighbors.

The fall of Adam Vaughn began with a phone call on March 20. 

"This is Special Agent Straub from the FBI. 

I need to talk to you about something."

Vaughn thought the agent might be contacting him about a case
involving a stolen vehicle driven across state lines. He put on his
badge and headed downtown. He was surprised to see an officer from
Madison already sitting in the agent's office. Straub handed Vaughn a
news article about Operation Candyman. Then he held up a thick manila
envelope, saying, "I have a package from Birmingham on you. We have
you logged on this site for a week. It was an FBI sting operation."

Vaughn's head began to swim. He had joined hundreds of sites. He told
the agent that he didn't remember joining the group. "We'd like to
have a look at your home computer," Straub said. Vaughn asked him if
he had a warrant. "We're just asking for consent," the agent
responded. Vaughn consented.

Straub told Vaughn to drive home and that he would follow. On the way,
Vaughn tried frantically to reach his wife on her cell phone at work,
but her battery had run down. Straub and the other officer arrived
minutes later and confiscated Vaughn's computer.

When Rebecca finally got home, there were 50 voice and text messages
from her husband. Vaughn told her what had happened. The next day, the
captain of the department, Danny Moore, told Vaughn he was suspended
with pay pending the outcome of the examination of his computer. He
turned in his badge, gun, and patrol car. For weeks, he and his wife
waited for a call or a knock at the door.

The Feds admitted an "apparent" mistake. By summer, the FBI net began
to unravel.

In late March, Vaughn's hard drive and scanner were taken to the FBI's
Computer Analysis and Response Team lab in Huntsville. An agent there
found traces of more than 300 sexually explicit images of minors on
Vaughn's hard drive, from teens to young children, "all the way down
to diapers," as the agent later testified. Of these, 60 were in
Vaughn's temporary browser cache, and 230 had been downloaded and

On April 2, Moore called and told Vaughn that he needed to come down
to the station. "Am I being fired or arrested?" he asked. Moore told
him he'd rather talk about it in person. When he arrived, Straub and
two other agents were standing in Moore's office. They led Vaughn out
through the station in handcuffs.

At the FBI headquarters in Huntsville, he was Mirandized,
fingerprinted, and locked in shackles and a waist chain. Then he was
brought before a judge, who released him on $5,000 bond pending trial.

Rebecca and a friend were waiting for him in the hall, and there was a
crowd of TV cameras outside. Minutes after the Vaughns got home,
officers from the parole board went through their apartment, ordering
them to get rid of all their computer equipment, including Rebecca's,
as a condition of Vaughn's release on bond. She carried their hardware
out to a dumpster.

When Rebecca returned, she was holding a letter that had been taped to
the door. It was an eviction notice informing the Vaughns that, "due
to the circumstances which took place this morning," they would have
to vacate the apartment in two weeks.

As a supervisory special agent at the FBI's Behavioral Research Unit,
Kenneth Lanning has probed the minds of child-porn collectors in more
depth than anyone in the history of the bureau. In a series of
influential essays, Lanning provided the analytical framework behind
many of our existing laws against child pornography.

Salty and streetwise, he served as a dispeller of myths for more than
two decades at the FBI before retiring in 2000. He officially debunked
the "satanic ritual abuse" hoax in the late '80s that landed dozens of
day-care providers in prison. He was also one of the first in law
enforcement to predict the impact the Internet would have on the
child-porn underground.

His most significant contribution was to direct the dialog about child
porn away from debates over its allegedly corrupting effects on adults
and focus it squarely on the harm inflicted on the victims. "Child
pornography, by itself, represents an act of sexual abuse or
exploitation of a child and, by itself, does harm to that child,"
Lanning wrote in Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis.

"The strongest argument you can make in court against child
pornography," Lanning told me in June, "is what it does to the person
in it. We don't know what percentage of people become molesters, but
we know that looking fuels demand. Every time you download an image,
there is an implicit message left behind: 'I like this. I want to see
more of it. And when I come back, there had better be something new.'"
When thousands of 

GIFs and MPEGs can be duplicated and transmitted globally with the
sweep of a mouse, the abuse of the original victims can be magnified
exponentially by thousands of netsurfers at a comfortable distance
from the scenes of the crimes. 

Lanning's focus on the victims has made him skeptical of what he calls
"zealotry" at the extremes of the child-porn issue the
free-speech libertarians who insist that just looking at images does
little harm, and those who insist that the legal definition of child
pornography must be made more and more broad, even to the point of
banning images that do not, in fact, depict minors.

Last spring, the Justice Department criticized the Supreme Court's
decision to exempt morphed or purely synthetic digital images of what
only appear to be sexually explicit acts by minors from the class of
illegal porn. The government testified that pedophiles could use such
"virtual" child porn to whet their own desires and lower the
inhibitions of potential victims. The court, however, drew the line at
banning images that are not themselves evidence of abuse. "The
government cannot constitutionally premise legislation on the
desirability of controlling a person's private thoughts," wrote
Justice Anthony Kennedy, speaking for the court in Ashcroft v. Free
Speech Coalition. 

When the Justice Department marshaled support in Congress to route
around the court's decision with a new law called the Child Obscenity
and Pornography Prevention Act, Lanning was asked to provide testimony
on the side of the attorney general. He politely declined.
Criminalizing purely fabricated images is "taking the 'child' out of
'child pornography,'" he says. "Playboy, toys, lollipops, and trips to
Disneyland are used by pedophiles to lower kids' inhibitions, too. Are
we going to make them all illegal?"

Lanning agreed with the court's decision that the job of law
enforcement is to police crimes, not to patrol "private thoughts."
Online, however, the distinctions between public and private are
blurred. Our intimate secrets can be put under surveillance, and our
most private acts can exert effects halfway around the world. In that
hazy zone, Vaughn walked right into Binney's net.

Psychologist Frankie Preston examined Vaughn for the prosecution after
his arrest, subjecting him to a battery of forensic tests. These
included an Abel assessment, employed to uncover inappropriate levels
of fixation on children in sex crime cases where the subject may be
attempting to deceive the examiner. He concluded that Vaughn is not a

"This is a guy," Preston says, "who served in special ops, volunteered
for 9/11, drives a Corvette, watches action-packed thrillers, and went
to many places where the average person would dare not go.
High-stimulus seekers like Adam get into situations where it feels
right to have all their sensory inputs going at once. They're risk
takers who often don't think about the danger to themselves until the
experience is over.

"Which is not necessarily a bad quality," he added, "in a Marine or a

A Saturn V rocket juts into the sky above Huntsville, the birthplace
of the American space program. In the final months of World War II,
110 German scientists were brought to the Redstone Arsenal to design
the engines that powered the first US satellites into orbit. Aerospace
research is still booming here. Ten years ago, the field where Madison
City Hall stands was planted with cotton. Now freshly paved streets
with names like Intergraph Road and Jetplex Circle carry engineers to
jobs at Boeing and Raytheon. 

It's still the South. The air is thick and close, the tea is cold and
sweet, and a sign on a roadside church advises, DUSTY BIBLES LEAD TO
DIRTY LIVES. A pastor recently persuaded shop owners to cover up such
salacious publications as Cosmopolitan magazine.

Three weeks after his arrest, Vaughn met me at the door in a T-shirt
and jeans with a wireless monitor strapped to his ankle. He looked
paler and thinner than he had in the Madison County Record he
had lost 30 pounds, and his medicine cabinet had filled up with
prescriptions to treat insomnia, depression, and cluster headaches. A
box connected to the device on his ankle transmitted information to a
parole officer with bursts of clicks at random intervals, a recurring
reminder of his captivity. Police chief Busken had issued a memo that
no one in the department was to talk to him, and as a condition of his
release on bond, he was prohibited from speaking with any member of
law enforcement not involved in his case. He lost contact with most of
his friends overnight.

This being the South, however, others jumped in to create a support
system for Vaughn and his wife. Two brothers in town, Sam and Simon
Vernon, rented a U-Haul and helped them move after the eviction. A
police chaplain petitioned his church council to provide the couple
with food when their money ran out and offered to give them Communion
at home.

Mostly, Vaughn passed the hours chain-smoking and playing videogames
on the couch, which Rebecca christened "Adam's command center." Kenny
Tincknell, a drill instructor in the Army, dropped in every couple of
weeks to give him a Marine-style buzz cut in the kitchen a
familiar ritual that reassured him that the rhythms of ordinary life
were going on outside the confines of his smoky apartment. Tincknell's
wife, Susan, once considered applying to become a cop, and Vaughn had
coached her on radio calls and taken her on ride-alongs. After the
officers returned from Ground Zero, the Tincknells' son carried the
newspaper article around in his pocket for three months.

"I know Adam," Susan told me. "I've seen him in his most unguarded
moments, in the best and worst of times. Adam and Rebecca are two of
the only people I would trust around my kids."

Vaughn hired two local attorneys, Steve Aldridge and Andy Segal. Like
Geoff Binney, Aldridge grew up in law enforcement. His first memories
are of riding in a patrol car with his father, the town sheriff.
Burly, loquacious, and fiercely practical, Aldridge has worked both
sides of the courtroom. He was the chief prosecutor for sex crimes in
Madison County for seven years. He also served as the head of the
investigations team for the National Children's Advocacy Center in
Huntsville, which has been instrumental in restructuring the
investigative process in sex crime cases worldwide to minimize the
trauma for young victims.

In late April, assistant US attorney Dierdra Brown met with the
lawyers and threatened to charge Vaughn with a felony for each image
on his hard drive, including the cached and deleted files. That would
yield a term of 25 years or more in federal prison a death
sentence for a sex offender and former cop. She also charged Vaughn
with obstruction of justice for telling Straub that he didn't remember
joining the Candyman group. Then she warned Vaughn's lawyers that she
would make his client "the national poster boy for child pornography"
if they took his case to trial. On days when Vaughn went to court, a
local newscaster told me, Brown tipped off reporters herself. She has
since left her post and has not returned phone calls about the case.

Aldridge and Segal negotiated a deal for Vaughn to plead to simple
possession, with the obstruction charge dropped. Under the federal
sentencing guidelines, his crime will yield a maximum five-year
sentence, with leeway for a downward departure by the sentencing
judge. On the basis of Vaughn's excellent record in the military and
as a police officer, the prosecutor agreed to request a downward
departure. The judge will also make a recommendation to send Vaughn to
either a federal prison or a psychiatric correctional facility. As
part of the plea agreement, Vaughn waived his right to appeal the
sentence. He also arranged to enroll in a group treatment program
after his incarceration. Under Megan's law, he will be a registered
sex offender for the rest of his life.

On June 11, Vaughn and his wife drove to the Hugo L. Black Courthouse
in Birmingham. US District Court judge Inge Johnson read through the
charges, pausing to ask Vaughn if he understood them, and explained
his constitutional rights. Vaughn pleaded guilty to possession of
child pornography and officially forfeited his confiscated hard drive
to the US government. Sentencing was set for early September.

I asked Vaughn how he felt after making his plea. "Fear, shame,
disgrace, sorrow, and suicidal thoughts hitting me all at once," he
said. "But now I have to take responsibility for my actions and allow
the legal system to do its job. I've destroyed my own life and
Rebecca's life, and affected the lives of my friends. If I knew a year
ago what was going to happen, I would have taken my computer and
thrown it in the trash."

All across the country this year, other Candyman defendants were also
pleading guilty, disappearing into prison as the bureau prepared
warrants for its next wave of arrests.

By summer, however, Binney's net was starting to unravel. US attorney
Michael Wynne sent out a letter to Candyman defense attorneys on July
15 acknowledging "an apparent factual inaccuracy" in the original
affidavits the bureau's claim that all Candyman members had
received email containing the illegal images. The letter also
disclosed that the moderator of the group, Mark Bates, told the FBI
about the email options in March, but "[agent] Sheldon concluded that
Bates was mistaken." Wynne wrote that while the government "is
concerned" about the inaccuracy, "it does not believe it either
invalidates the search warrants or gives rise to a basis for
suppression of evidence."

For D. Toni Byrd, an assistant federal public defender in
Pennsylvania, the letter raised troubling questions about the
integrity of the investigation. Defense attorneys across the country,
she says, are considering challenging the constitutionality of the
warrants and withdrawing their clients' guilty pleas. Several have
delayed their clients' sentencing until the issue is resolved.

In August, Aldridge spoke with Vaughn, and they decided the risks of
retracting his plea were too great. "In the old days, the laws against
illegal search and seizure were interpreted much more strictly,"
Aldridge says, "but as this technology develops, the definition of
probable cause will most likely be expanded. I've advised Adam to stay
the course."

Rebecca received word from the Army Corps of Engineers that she was
not to appear with her husband in media coverage of the sentencing.
"You see somebody on the news walking into court alone," she told me,
"and you say, where is their family? Where is their wife? Where is
their support? I will walk beside Adam that day."

Contributing editor Steve Silberman ( profiled
Oliver Sacks in Wired 10.04.

Copyright (C) 1993-99 The Conde Nast Publications Inc. All rights


Public to police child sex convicts

PAEDOPHILES will be integrated into the community under radical plans
to introduce a "buddy" system for sex offenders in a bid to stop them
re-offending, The Scotsman has learned.

Full article:


Tuesday, November 5, 2002 (SF Chronicle)
Missing 6 months, girls safe/Sisters dropped off at TV station in S.F.
Charlie Goodyear, Matthew B. Stannard, Chronicle Staff Writers

   Two young Lafayette girls who vanished from their mother's care six

months ago were returned to their father Monday, after police were

a convicted child molester had helped hide them, police said.

   Anna Nunez, 6, and her 4-year-old

sister, Emily, were returned to their father, Danny Nunez, as police

investigated how several people helped the mother keep the children

their father.

   "They are happy and they are healthy and we are very grateful," said


   The girls disappeared in April after their mother, Kelli Nunez, 38,

them up at day care, police said.

   Kelli Nunez was arrested a few weeks later at a court hearing in her

custody case after she told a judge that she had given her children to

strangers and did not know their whereabouts.

   She has since been held in the Contra Costa County jail in Martinez

contempt of court.

   The break in the case came Sunday night after a television broadcast

the missing children.

   An anonymous tipster called Morgan Hill police and said a man
involved in

the disappearance of the girls was at the Budget Hotel on Monterey

Acting Sgt. Troy Hoefling said Monday.

   Officers found Florencio C. Maning Jr., 46, a former Stockton
resident, at

the hotel -- without the children -- and investigators confirmed he was

convicted child molester.

   Maning was arrested on charges of failing to register as a sex
offender as

required under Megan's Law, Hoefling said.

   According to several people who worked with him, Maning has been
active in

Bay Area groups that fight the social service agencies charged with

determining custody of children who have allegedly been abused or

   Two members of a group that Maning worked for dropped the children
off at

KGO-TV studios in San Francisco on Monday, and the children were later

reunited with their father.

   Maning had checked into the hotel late Sunday night, and the staff
had no

contact with him during his brief stay, a hotel telephone operator

   According to state records, Maning was convicted of committing a
lewd and

lascivious act on a child under the age of 14. His whereabouts have

unknown since February, and Morgan Hill police said he has not

since January 2001.

   Speaking from the Martinez jail on Monday, Kelli Nunez said she knew

as a member of a group she identified as Advocates for Children of San

She said she believed her daughters were being cared for by a friend.

she had no idea Maning was convicted of child molestation.

   "I had no clue," Kelli Nunez said.

   After a 1999 divorce, the Nunezes were embroiled in a bitter custody

dispute -- with Kelli Nunez accusing her ex-husband of child abuse --

Anna and Emily disappeared.

   Contra Costa Deputy District Attorney Kirk Andrus, who has been

investigating the case for months, said he is trying to put all the


   Maning was known as Junior Maning to members of several South Bay

critical of the Santa Clara County Juvenile Dependency Court system,

hears cases involving children who have allegedly been abused or

   Maning occasionally served as director of several groups, including

California Family Advocacy Centers and Klout for Kids, according to

knew his work.

   Kathleen Justi, co-founder of one of those groups, the National

for Family Justice, said Maning did a "tremendous amount" of important

most of it involving assisting parents with court filings.

   San Jose attorney Robert Powell said he worked with Maning on

in the past 18 months involving indigent parents trying to recover

children from county protective care.

   "Junior is both a friend and a tremendous, fantastic legal resource

juvenile law. He's got a brain like a supercomputer," Powell said. "He

works slavishly."

   Powell and Justi said that neither Maning nor his organizations were

involved with helping parents hide their children.

   "I would be very upset with him if he was stupid enough to
jeopardize what

he's done for all these people by getting involved with something like

Powell said.

   Justi also said they had become aware of Maning's status as

a sex offender after being contacted several months ago by another

advocacy group concerned about working with Maning.

   Powell said he learned of Maning's criminal history on Sunday but
that Maning's

work did not often put him in contact with children, since he worked on

where the children were in county custody.

   Justi said the revelation distressed her. "Whether it's Junior or

else, I would have a genuine concern," she said. "We work with

   Maning's group -- which Andrus said uses different names -- had been

advising Kelli Nunez, convincing her at one point to register her
daughters as

her commercial property in an attempt to circumvent the jurisdiction of

family law judge in Contra Costa County.

   Police received the tip Sunday night after someone realized Maning
was a

convicted sex offender and had been hiding his criminal record, Andrus

   Kelli Nunez, meanwhile, will face charges of child abduction.

said they expected to issue a warrant for her arrest late Monday night.

   Sitting in a jailhouse interview room, she insisted she had taken

daughters to protect them from their father.

   She reiterated accusations that he had abused both girls but that

too young to be credible witnesses in court. Danny Nunez, who denies

his children, has never been charged with abusing his children.

   "I put myself in jail for six months to try and protect my kids,"

Nunez said.

   Asked if she regretted any of her actions, she replied, "I regret
that I

never left the country. I regret that I came back and tried to fight

   E-mail the writers at and
Copyright 2002 SF Chronicle


Data Missing on Missing Children
By: Timothy W. Maier 


By now the stories are all too familiar. A child is missing: vanished 
from the family's back yard, snatched from the bus stop or stolen from 
his or her own bedroom. The pictures on the evening news have become a 
ghostly reminder of childhood lost. These stories are heartbreaking for 
everyone; parents' grief is all but unbearable. 
Meanwhile, across the nation, parents fear their child could be next. 
Justice Department research indicates the risk of abduction by a 
stranger is relatively low for preschoolers, but increases through elementary 
school and peaks at age 15. Teen-age girls are considered most 
Frightened parents wonder how the society in which they are raising 
families got this way. Some blame the media for reporting these cases. The 
FBI charged that reporters were distorting the facts with fear-driven 
stories about monsters preying on children. 
For the media, it started out innocently enough. With no juicy summer 
sex scandal such as the Chandra Levy or Gary Condit cases to sell papers 
or build ratings, reporters slowly dissected the tragic kidnapping and 
murder of Danielle van Dam in San Diego. That story consumed the 
national press until 14-year-old Elizabeth Smart was snatched from her 
bedroom in Utah, seizing the attention of the electronic media and making 
still more headlines. That case seemed to strike fear into the heart of 
every parent of a beautiful child. 
The coverage of child-snatching became even more intense when 
5-year-old Samantha Runnion was dragged from her driveway. Samantha's body was 
discovered after the perpetrator had raped her and discarded her remains 
a short distance from her home. By now the fear had become a runaway 
train as new cases were reported in headlines from Philadelphia to 
Writing for Time magazine, Walter Kern put it bluntly: "One wonders if 
the abduction reports are a runaway habit whose internal momentum can 
get the best of reporters and editors, flattening everything else that 
lies before it: stories of war and preparations for war, of corruption 
among the elites, of floods and droughts. What, no kidnapped kids this 
morning? Well, find some!" 
Many welcome the coverage. Curtis S. Lavarello, executive director for 
the National Association of School Resource Officers, says: "For 
critics who claim that copycats may arise as a result of media coverage, I 
would counter that in all reality, for every case of a possible copycat 
case, there are most likely hundreds, if not thousands, of parents doing 
a better job of supervising their children." 
The FBI, in fact, insists that child abductions by strangers actually 
have declined. In the 1980s the number of such child abductions averaged 
annually about 200 to 300, according to the FBI. In 2000, the number of 
cases dropped to 93 compared with 134 in 1999 and 115 in 1998, when the 
FBI first began tracking these statistics. 
But that may not be an accurate assessment. Neal Rawls, a security 
consultant in Palm Beach, Fla., and author of Be Alert, Be Aware, Have a 
Plan: The Complete Guide to Protecting Yourself, Your Home, Your Family, 
calls the FBI statistics misleading. "OSHA reports workplace accidents 
better than the government tracks missing kids," he says. 
Rawls contends no one can say for certain if there has been an increase 
or decrease in the number of missing-kids cases because everyone 
defines kidnapping differently. "Is luring someone into a house, and then 
releasing them, considered kidnapping?" he wonders. If so, consider this: 
One out of seven people who are sexually assaulted is a child younger 
than age 6, and 67 percent of sexual-assault victims are children. That, 
he says, indicates a problem bigger than the FBI admits. 
According to Rawls, if a child is lured by a stranger and then sexually 
assaulted and released, the FBI downplays the crime by boasting that 
most of these missing kids are returned. "The FBI makes it sound 
insignificant if a child is not killed," he says. "The fact that these kids are 
returned does not mean that we don't have a monumental problem. The 
huge problem of sexual predators attacking children is getting swept under 
the rug." 
The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) also has 
tried to calm the waters by advising that most of the 725,000 children 
reported missing in 2001 were returned. Of that number, the NCMEC 
claims, 3,000 to 5,000 were nonfamily abductions or stranger-kidnapping 
cases with most being returned. NCMEC statistics don't match the FBI's 
compilation. About 6 percent of abductions by strangers result in murder. 
Most of the general statistics on child-snatching are extrapolated from 
a 1990 Department of Justice study called National Incidence Studies of 
Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Thrownaway Children. The study claimed 
354,100 abductions per year are committed by family members in custody 
disputes. The same study says about 114,600 stranger-abductions are 
attempted per year, of which about 3,200 to 4,600 are successful. (The FBI 
doesn't track or bother to inform parents how many child-snatching 
attempts were reported.) The Department of Justice study says about 200 to 
300 kidnappings per year involve children taken overnight, transported 
to another location and killed. 
How accurate these statistics are is unknown. David Finkelhor, a 
sociology professor who heads the University of New Hampshire's Crimes 
Against Children Center, recently told CNN that "for a crime that gets as 
much public attention as it does, it's pretty appalling that there are not 
better statistics." 
A follow-up study was published in June 2000 in the Justice 
Department's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile 
Justice Bulletin. That report says 24 percent of all kidnapping cases are 
"stranger-kidnapping" compared with 49 percent family kidnapping and 27 
percent acquaintance kidnapping. However, it based its findings on 
reviewing 1,214 cases from 1997 in the National Incident-Based Reporting 
System. Written in part by Finkelhor, this report contradicts the 1990 
study, stating "it is impossible to project a reliable national estimate of 
kidnapping incidents ... because there has been an absence of reliable 
statistics about the crime." In fact, the FBI does not even include the 
crime in its Uniform Crime Reporting System. 
So how many children are missing, from where and what are their names? 
No one knows for sure. Dave Thelen, chief executive officer for the 
nonprofit Committee for Missing Children Inc., has been trying to get 
reliable statistics for years and would like to see NCMEC back up its 
numbers with a complete database of names and case histories. So far, no 
member of Congress has bothered to ask for an accounting of every missing 
child in the nation. As a result, there has been no national 
compilation of such rudimentary information as name, age, date missing and status 
of the case. Experts in the field explain that each jurisdiction 
defines crimes of kidnapping differently. 
Regardless of such problems, both NCMEC President Ernie Allen and the 
FBI insist that there are enough empirical data to indicate that 
child-snatching has declined, particularly abductions by strangers. Frank 
Furedi, author of Paranoid Parenting, insists the FBI statistics indicate 
the United States is not "experiencing an epidemic of child abduction." 
But the White House is not so convinced. "It seems that President 
George W. Bush regards the threat of child abduction as akin to that of 
terrorism," observes Furedi. "Recently, he informed the people of America 
that they were not only under threat from terrorists, they also faced a 
wave of horrible violence from twisted elements in our own 
communities." Indeed President Bush has been joined by Attorney General John 
Ashcroft and Secretary of Education Rod Paige in announcing a White House 
Conference on Missing, Exploited and Runaway Children to be convened in 
September. He also has announced release of a new guidebook, Personal 
Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents. 
Meanwhile, Furedi insists, "The cumulative effect of the ceaseless 
exploitation of the issue of child-snatching by the U.S. media is to poison 
the relationship between adults and children. As far as American 
culture goes, adults and children need to be kept apart." For example, he 
says, at a playground in San Francisco unaccompanied adults are denied 
entrance by a security guard. "I was also informed that unaccompanied 
adults could not loiter outside the park," Furedi says. "The age-old idea 
that adults derive a simple harmless pleasure from just watching 
children play has given way to the conviction that such instincts are likely 
to be those of a predator." 
But child-advocacy groups welcome the White House conference. Noting 
that about 85 to 90 percent of the 876,213 persons reported missing in 
2000 were children  a 469 percent increase from the 154,341 reported in 
1982, the Klass Kids Foundation points out in its literature that, "if 
any other segment of our population were so impacted, we would declare 
an epidemic; the Center for Disease Control would fund a cure; we would 
pass and enforce legislation and we would increase private and public 
security. But, since it is only our children, many in our society accept 
these appalling numbers as status quo." 
Timothy W. Maier is a writer for Insight magazine. 
email the author 

Story Source: Insight on the News


We have always believed that exposure of those who abuse children is the greatest deterrant, with education. All excerpts are pulled from public Internet sources.